What is Preposition?
A preposition is the words that is used before any noun or pronoun and establish a relationship between one Noun or pronoun to another Noun or pronoun. Some of the most popular prepositions are ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘into’, ‘of’, ‘to’ etc.
एक पूर्वसर्ग (Preposition) वह शब्द है जो एक संज्ञा या सर्वनाम से दूसरे संज्ञा या सर्वनाम के बीच संबंध स्थापित करता है।
To, In, into, On, At Etc.
Below is the Preposition MCQ to check your knowledge, you can attempt this MCQ or you can understand Preposition in this chapter before the quiz. At the end of the lesson there is another MCQ on preposition which has 50 question, Read and Learn Preposition.
अंग्रेजी शुद्ध-शुद्ध लिखने और बोलने के लिए जिन grammatical topics का अध्ययन करते हैं, उनमे Preposition (पूर्वसर्ग) का अपना एक विशेष महत्त्व है | इसके प्रयोग करने में बहुत अधिक सावधानी बरतने की आवश्यकता होती है, क्योंकि किसी खास शब्द के साथ किसी खास Preposition का प्रयोग होता है और कुछ शब्दों के साथ भिन्न-भिन्न अर्थों में भिन्न-भिन्न- Prepositions का प्रयोग होता है |
वह कुँए में गिर गया | यहाँ अगर ‘में’ की अंग्रेजी ‘in’ देते हैं,तो यह गलत होगा | यहाँ आपको ‘into’ देना होगा गति/वेग दिखने के लिए ‘into’ का प्रयोग होता है | अर्थात He fell into the well.
इसी प्रकार live के बाद in देते हैं तो इसका कुछ और अर्थ होगा; अगर live के बाद on देते हैं तो इसका कुछ और अर्थ होगा –
He lives in India.(वह भारत में रहता है|)
The cow lives on grass.(गाय घास पर जिंदा रहती है|)
Preposition examples in English Sentences
एक और उदहारण यहाँ देखें कि एक ही word ‘died’ के बाद विभिन्न स्थितियों में भिन्न-भिन्न Prepositions का प्रयोग कैसे हुआ है,
He died of cancer.
He died from wound.
He died for the nation.
He died through neglect.
He died in battle.
He died by violence.
आपको word wise/situation wise यह जानना होगा कि किसी word के बाद कौन Preposition लिए उपयुक्त होगा | इसके लिए सिर्फ certain rules जानना ही पर्याप्त नहीं होगा | बल्कि इसके लिए आपको निरंतर अभ्यास करना होगा |
Where to place a preposition in a sentence :
आप जानते हैं कि Preposition वह शब्द है जो प्रायः किसी Noun या Pronoun के पहले आकर उस Noun या Pronoun का सम्बन्ध वाक्य के कुछ अन्य शब्दों से कराता है | इसीलिए अधिकांश स्थितियों में यह किसी Noun उसे Pronoun के पहले प्रयुक्त होता है जैसा कि इन वाक्यों से स्पष्ट है-
He is in the room.
She is going to school.
I am tired of walking.
The cat jumped off the chair.
What is that to me?
Usage of Preposition in English Sentences
यहाँ एक बात ध्यान में रखें कि जिस Noun/Pronoun के पहले Preposition प्रयुक्त रहता है वह Noun/Pronoun अभीष्ट Preposition का Object कहलाता है | ऊपर दिए गये वाक्यों में room, school, walking, chair तथा me क्रमशः in, to, of, off तथा to के Objects हैं |
List of Prepositions
Up – Above – On – Over
- ON :
- “On” is used to denote the position of something Which is in a position above something else and is touching it.
The book is on the table.
- Note: On is also used before a “Day” or “Date”.
I will visit him on Monday.
India became republic on 26th January 1950
- If there is an article before a “means of transport”, ”On” is used.
On a bus/ train/ ship/cycle.
‘up’ is used to talk about a higher position or a movement to a higher position.
He followed his teacher up the stairs.
Above: for higher position
- “Above” is used to denote a higher position or level.
His marks are above eighty percent.
- ऊपर(लेकिन सटा हुआ नहीं) के लिए, higher than something
A sword was hanging above his head.
The plane is flying above the clouds.
- परे/से ऊपर के लिए, beyond the reach of, more than
We should value honour above life.
The applicants should be above the age of twenty.
over : above or beyond anything
- “Over” is used to denote the position of something which is above something else and is covering it.
I put my hands over my eyes.
- के ऊपर (सटा हुआ/छूता हुआ)
Spread a cloth over the table.
He put his hand over the mouth to speak to her screaming.
- के ऊपर (सटा या छूता हुआ नहीं)
There was an umbrella over her head.
The sky was a clear blue over our heads.
- के ऊपर (एक छोर से दूसरे छोर तक)
There was a bridge over the river.
The child could run over the grass.
- के उस पार
He lives over the road/bridge.
It is difficult to go over the mountain.
- से अधिक (more than)
He is over sixty.
I stayed there for over a year.
The river is over sixty miles long.
- प्रत्येक जगह होने का भाव
Gandhi ji is remembered all over the world.
It is raining all over the country.
- Some other uses of ‘over’
I heard it over the radio.
She has no control over her emotions.
- On- upon – Onto
- On: rest on the upper surface of a thing
- पर (वस्तु या व्यक्ति से सटा हुआ-स्थान का भाव)
They are sitting on the grass.
He is writing on the paper.
- को (समय का भाव)
I am free on sunday.
She will reach on time.
Note : on time का अर्थ है- बिलकुल ठीक समय पर, न पहले न बाद में, in time का अर्थ है- समय के कुछ पहले,अर्थात्त देर से नहीं|
- विषय में/के संबंध में (about/concerning)
I am writing on Shakespeare.
He is writing a book on economics.
- सदस्य होने का भाव
He is on the committee/staff/jury.
- कार्य-व्यापार/स्थिति का भाव
He is on tour/business/holiday.
- के बिलकुल नजदीक (close to a place or time)
There was no house on the main road.
There was a town on the coast.
- Upon :
- ‘Upon’ is used to denote ‘On’ in a more formal team, especially in abstract senses.
It was based upon two principles
- ‘Onto’ is used to indicate movement into or on a particular place.
She slipped as she stepped into the floor.
- Note: upon and Onto are used to denote Motion.
The cat jumped upon the platform.
They climbed into the summit.
In – Into – Within
- In: rest in the interior of anything
- में (बड़े स्थान के साथ)
We live in India.
He lives in Noida.
- में (समय का भाव)
He will come in four days.
I play in the morning.
- में (दिशा, अस्वस्था का भाव)
He is in debt.
Are you in love with her?
- में (पोशाक में)
He was in uniform.
She was in a sari.
- में (दिशा का भाव)
The sunrises in the east.
- में (पेशा, व्यापार, कार्य-कलाप का भाव)
He is in the army.
He has been in politics all his life.
- Some other uses of ‘in’
This novel is in three parts.
Can you speak in English?
She was lying in bed.
into : motion towards the interior of something
- में (बहार से भीतर की ओर जने का भाव)
He came into my room.
She dived into the swimming pool.
- में (एक वस्तु से दूसरी वस्तु में बदलने का भाव)
Heat turns water into vapor.
- में (स्थिति में परिवर्तन का भाव)
She came into power in 1970.
Within : inside the limits of anything
- के अंदर (स्थान/समय का बोध)
He will come within an hour/a month.
Her house is within a mile of the station.
- limit/range/capacity/के अंदर
This is not within my power.
She finds it hard to live within her income.
- ‘Within’ is used to denote time or position which is inside the range or limits of a particular period of time or distance.
I will complete this work within two hours.
Of and Off
- Of : For Relation
- का/की/के (संबंध/अधिकार का बोध)
Ram was the son of king Dashratha.
I don’t live in my father’s house.
- माप/तौल का बोध
Please give me a cup of tea.
A loaf of bread will do.
- का/की/के (material का बोध)
This chair is made of wood/iron/steel.
This statue was made of marble/stone.
- का/की/के (अंश/मात्रा portion का बोध)
He is a member of the team.
Don’t tear the page of that book.
- के कारण [कारण (cause) का भाव)]
He died of cholera.
What did he die of?
- origin / source (स्रोत) का बोध
She is a woman of royal descent.
- के बारे में/ के संबंध में
You must have heard of gandhiji.
He told us of his travels.
- का/की/के (quality का बोध)
He is a man of strong will.
I saw a child of strange appearance.
- Some other uses of ‘of’
It was kind of you to help me.
The hotel is within 100 yards of the station.
His chance of winning is very high.
Off : separation at a near distance
- से (स्थान से अलग होने का भाव)
He fell off the horse.
Keep off the grass.
- कुछ दुरी पर होने का भाव
There is a big house off the high street.
To and Towards
- To: Motion towards anything
- की ओर (indicating direction)
He is going to school.
Please turn to the left
- से…… तक (स्थान/समय का भाव)
From door to door
From morning to evening.
- के लिए-उद्देश्य (Purpose/intention)
He came to see us.
He came to our help.
They fought to the last man.
- स्थान (place)
He has come to me/my house.
- बाकि (समय का भाव)
It is six to ten.
It is a quarter to eight.
- belonging to somebody/something.
This is a key to the door.
- comparison/ratio/proportion का भाव
I prefer reading to writing.
He is a junior to me.
The chances are three to one.
- Some other uses of ‘to’:
There are mountain to the north India.
I am devoted to my love.
He tore the letter to pieces.
- की ओर (nearness of approach)
He is coming towards the house.
The child came running towards me.
- के नजदीक/के लगभग (nearness of time)
It is now towards evening.
- के प्रति (in relation to-behaviour)
He was very kind towards beggars.
She is very friendly towards her juniors.
- के लिए (in aid of)
You will have to give Rs. 100/- towards the Poor Boys’ Fund.
At : Proximity (सामीप्य) with actual or intended contact
- छोटे स्थान का बोध : Proximity in time
He will come at 4 o’clock.
He came at noon/night/midnight.
- छोटे स्थान का बोध : proximity in place
He is at home.
My son is at school.
indicating price/rate/speed: Proximity in value/speed
Rice sells at Rs. 10/-a kilo.
At what price is this sold?
दिशा/लक्ष्य का बोध : Proximity in aim/direction
She is looking at him.
He frowned at him for laughing at him.
indicating a state, condition or continuous activity:
Proximity in state/occupation
Children are at play.
from : motion or rest apart from anything.
- से (स्थान से अलग होने का भाव)
He has come from Patna.
Mangoes are falling from the tree.
- से(समय का भाव)
He has blind from birth.
I will be there from morning to evening.
- से (कारण का भाव)
He is suffering from fever.
- से (स्रोत, origin का भाव)
These lines are from the Bible.
- से (एक वस्तु से दूसरी वस्तु बनाना)
We make curd from milk.
We make steel from iron.
- some other uses of ‘from’:
I had a phone call from Ravi.
He comes from a poor family.
Before and In front of
- से पहले,earlier than somebody/something
He will come before lunch.
A comes before B.
- के सामने, in front of, in the presence of
He stood before the judge.
The task before us is not an easy one.
In front of:
- ‘ In front of ‘ means ‘directly ahead of ‘(something)
Do not stand in front of me.
- Behind: के पीछे
The dog ran behind its master. (स्थान का भाव)
She hid behind the tree. (स्थान का भाव)
The train is behind its time. (समय का भाव)
There is a smile behind his frown. (छिपाव का भाव)
By and With
- By : nearness of some kind
- समीप/के किनारे- nearness in place
Come and sit by me.
There was a house by the church/river.
- तक (समय से पहले)- nearness in time
Can you finish the work by 4 o’clock?
- यातायात की साधन के बोध
We travel by car/bus/boat/cycle/plane.
He used to travel by air, land,and sea.
May I play by cheque?
I shall contact you by letter.
some other uses off ‘by’:
The thief entered by the back door.
I swear by Almighty God.
The bullet missed him by two inches.
By my watch it is 4 o’clock.
- With :
- के साथ/एक साथ/साथ-साथ (union of smoke kind)
He arrived with all his luggage.
I can’t do with you.
It is easy to sail with the wind.
- वाला/वाली (गुण का बोध), के साथ वाला/वाली (गुण का बोध)
She was a girl with red hair.
He is a man with long beads.
- की साथ (carrying something)
Did you see the boy with a camera??
He was a hunter with a gun.
- से/के द्वारा (साधन- instrument/material का बोध)
He cut the apple with a knife.
Feed the baby with a spoon.
He killed the bird with a stone.
He is writing with a pencil.
- से/के कारण (कारण का बोध)
I was sick with a fever.
His face was red with anger.
He is trembling with fear.
- से(कार्य करने के तरीके का बोध)
I will do it with pleasure.
He heard me with patience.
- सहमति का भाव
I am always with you.
- विरोध का भाव
He quarrelled with me.
One king fought with another.
- के बाबजूद (in spite of)
With all her faults he liked her.
With all his wealth he is in debt.
- indicating point of reference
He is not popular with his pupils.
- Some other uses of ‘with’
Skill comes with experience.
What should I do with you?
For – Since
- For : Something
- के लिए (indicating personal benefit)
This is for you.
What is for Ravi?
I bought sweets for children.
What can I do for you?
- के लिए/की ओर (indicating direction/place)
He will soon start for home.
Is it the train for Delhi?
- के कारण (indicating cause or reason)
She danced for joy.
He got a prize for bravery.
- समय का भाव (period of time)
He has been running for an hour.
He was imprisoned for life.
- प्रतिनिधित्व या समर्थन का भाव
I am speaking for all the workers.
I am for this proposal.
- के रहते हुआ भी (in spite of)
For all his learning he has no sense.
For all his wealth he is not happy.
- exchange का भाव
He sold his horse for five thousand.
I paid Rs. 100/- for the book.
- के लिए (indicating purpose of functions)
He went for a walk.
This is a machine for cutting paper.
- Some other uses of ‘for’
She is tall for her age.
I am anxious for her.
I have liking for fish.
This is not fit for food.
- “Since” is used to denote point of time.
I have been sleeping since four P.M.
- Since is also used to denote “reason”.
Since I was injured , I did not play the match.
- But : expect, को छोड़कर, के अतिरिक्त
Everyone was there but you.
The problem is anything but easy.
- Out of : motion from the interior of a thing
- स्थान का भाव
He is out of this town.
He jumped out of bed.
- स्रोत (source) का भाव
I paid it out of my own pocket.
The hut was made out of pieces of wood.
- प्रयोजन कारण (motive/cause) का भाव
He said that out of ill temper.
I asked him out of curiosity.
- अनेक में से (from among)
Choose one out of the seven.
- Some other uses of ‘out of’
He is not out of danger.
He is out of mind.
- About: Nearness of something.
- के संबंध में/के बारे में, concerning about relations
Do you know about him?
He is careless about his duties.
Tell me about the accident.
I am fond of hearing about ships.
- लगभग के लिए, For time
It is about ten o’clock.
He arrived at about seven o’ clock.
- होने-होने को (कार्य के तुरंत होने का भाव) के लिए, for being happen
The train is about to start.
The show is about to start.
Across and through
- Across: from one side to the opposite
- उस पार के लिए, for the opposite side of.
Her house is across the river.
- एक छोर से दूसरे छोर तक के लिए, from one side to the other side of something
Can you swim across the river?
There is a bridge across the river.
Through: across the interior of anything
- से होकर (एक छोर से दूसरे छोर तक)
The River Thames flows through London.
There is no way through the forest.
- शुरू से अंत तक (from the beginning to the end of something.
I have gone through the book.
She nursed me through my long illness.
- से/के द्वारा (means,साधन)
I knew it through a newspaper.
She is looking through glass.
- के कारण (cause/motive/reason)
The vase was broken through carelessness.
Through your help I may succeed.
- ‘Through’ is used to indicate the movement from one end to the other.
They ran swiftly through the woods.
- After: For sequence
- बाद के लिए, later than, showing sequence of time/place
He came after ten o’clock.
I will enter after you.
- दोहराने के लिए: for repeat action
He fired shot after shot.
Against : opposition of some kind
- विरूद्ध, के विपरीत, in opposition to sb/sth
I am not against you.
That is against the law.
- से सटकर, in contact with
He was leaning against a tree.
- की तैयारी में,in preparation for
There is an injection against cholera.
- in return for (something)
Tickets are issued only against payment of the full fee.
- Along: in the same line with anything
- के समाचार, की बगल में, from one end to or towards the other end of something, close to or parallel with the learned of something
The line went along the highway.
He walked along the river bank.
Flowers grow along the side of the wall.
Between – Among
- Among & Between:
इन दोनों का अर्थ होता है ‘बिच में’ पर इसमें अंतर यह है कि जहाँ Between का प्रयोग दो व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के साथ होता है वहीँ Among & Between का प्रयोग तीन या तीन से अधिक व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के साथ होता है | जैसे-
The money was divided between my two sons.
The money was divided among my four sons.
The books were distributed among the students.
Note: Between का प्रयोग दो से अधिक के साथ भी होता है यदि उन सब वस्तुओं या व्यक्तियों के बिच परस्पर संबंध या सहयोग (reciprocal relation) का बोध हो,जैसे-
There is a treaty between the five great powers.
There is not much space between the three points.
Down – Below – Beneath – Under
Down is used to denote a lower position ,from a higher one.
She bent down to look under the car.
Below: at a lower point or degree (निचे)
Please don’t write below this line.
He stood below me in the class.
The number was below twenty.
“Beneath” means “directly underneath ( something)”
There is a pipeline beneath the road.
Under: rest or motion in a lower place
- के नीचे (स्थानन का बोध)
The cat was under the table.
What is under the bed?
The water flows under the bridge.
- से कम (less than/younger than)
Applicants should not be less than twenty.
If you are under 18 you cannot join the job.
- के पद के निचे (lower in rank than somebody)
I have a staff of 20 working under me.
No one under the rank of caption may enter the room.
- के अधीन (governed or led by somebody)
Under his captionship the team is running well.
This institute works under a committee.
- दशा/अवस्था का बोध- being in a state of something
His case is under consideration.
These buildings are under construction.
- Some other uses of ‘under’
One should not open a bank account under a false name.
He is struggling under the burden of his family.
- Beside :
- Beside का अर्थ है-बगल में, समीप या बाहर और इसके स्थान का बोध होता है
Besides का अर्थ है-अतिरिक्त (in addition to), आलावा
She was sitting beside her mother.(माँ के बगल में)
She has no one beside her mother. (माँ के अतिरिक्त)
No one writes to me beside you. (तुम्हारे आलावा)
Besides means “ in addition to “
They have a lot of things in common besides their profession.
- Except –
- Except is used before a noun about which the statement is not true.
Except means “apart from”
Everyone had attended the class except sachin.
- Beyond : on the farther side of,( के) ,परे,पार,बाहर
My house is beyond those hills.
Don’t spend beyond your means.
It is belief/endurance.
- Since : from some point of past time.
- से (समय का भाव- point of time के लिए)
He has been absent since morning/Sunday/January.
- Without : on the outside of anything
- के बिना
One cannot live without food.
This is a river without water.
She can’t read without glasses.
MCQ on Preposition part-2
Also Read : English Grammar Topics
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